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我穿越回近2000年前,来到了神秘遥远的贵霜王朝……

2018-01-07 18:47     女人     来自:环球时报(英文版)-MySH

说起“贵霜帝国”,许多人可能会一脸茫然:这是哪里?什么年代的?……


贵霜帝国(Kushan Empire),古国,国祚始自公元55年,425年亡。127年-230年为其巅峰时期。疆域从今日的塔吉克绵延至里海、阿富汗及印度河流域。


贵霜帝国在迦腻色伽一世和其继承者统治之下达至鼎盛,拥有人口五百万,士兵二十多万,被认为是当时欧亚四大强国之一,与汉朝、罗马、安息并列。

(via百度百科)





从时间上来看,贵霜帝国和中国的汉朝差不多,双方并存过很长一段时间。这个古代中亚地区的强国,也曾有过许许多多令人惊心动魄的传奇……



这个遥远的国度,和咱们的丝绸之路有何种缘分?和当下的中国有什么联系?它有哪些故事值得我们聆听?



身在魔都又喜欢逛博物馆的小伙伴们有福啦!上海博物馆的重磅临展,将带你走进贵霜王朝的世界——






时间:2017.12.29-2018.3.18

地点:上海博物馆第三站厅



Kushan Dynasty



Shanghai Museum recently organized an exhibition titled Crossroads: The Beliefs and Arts of Kushan Dynasty featuring 39 fine distinctive cultural relics from Shanghai Museum, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Museum, Lüshun Museum and Hotan Museum.


As an import trade route linking Asia and Europe, the ancient Silk Road played a major role in promoting economic and trade relations between countries in the Euro-Asian continent. Kushan, which included Central Asia and parts of South Asia, spanned the 1st to 4th centuries, one of the four biggest Asian empires.


A hub along the ancient Silk Road network, Kushan occupied a vital geographical place between China's Han Dynasty (206BC-AD220), the Parthian Empire of ancient Iran and Iraq, ancient Rome and ancient India. Thus, whether Kushan was inclusive or exclusive to foreign cultures and communication determined the fate of the Silk Road.


Eventually transforming itself into an open and inclusive spirit, Kushan's acceptance of various cultures and beliefs from all peripheral regions not only promoted cultural exchange between East and West but also helped populate Kushan with ethnically diverse communities. 


"Through this exhibition we want to reveal the most important cultural spirit of the Silk Road, a spirit of openness and inclusiveness," Yang Zhigang, director of Shanghai Museum, said at the event.






Continuous cultural integration



The exhibition revolves around three themes of the Kushan Dynasty: "Power of Monarch," "Faith and Culture," and "Economy and Lifestyle."


A highlight from "Power of Monarch" is the display of 12 ancient coins from the Kushan Dynasty, which reveals the continuous cultural integration of the empire with other regions. 


The change in patterns forged on each coin, from the ancient Greek-Roman style (side profile of a king) to the front-facing Kushan style, demonstrates the inclusive attitude of Kushan toward foreign cultures and religions, according to Wang Yue, a vice research fellow at Shanghai Museum and the curator of the exhibition.


"As a mirror of credibility and stability, a country usually will not alter the look of its currency. However, dramatic changes took place on Kushan coins, which mirrored the empire's flexibility," Wang said.


Interestingly, on one coin, one side features the profile of a Kushan king wearing a round Kushan-style crown with an Iranian robe. The other side of the coin features a bull and Shiva, the Hindu god.






Belt and Road themes



The all-inclusive atmosphere of the Kushan Dynasty is also portrayed in its architecture. When the Kushans ruled this region, they integrated architectural styles from various countries.


One building component collected by Lüshun Museum shows the fusion of Buddhism from India and art from Greek, with the Buddha sitting in the center of a pavilion decorated by the Corinthian order, which is usually only seen in ancient Greek and Roman architecture.


"This distinctive style offered a better way for people to understand the meaning of Buddhism and played an important role in the spread of Buddhism to China," said Wang.


According to Yang, the director of Shanghai Museum, the museum has paid close attention to Belt and Road-themed exhibitions and will continue to explore the cultural communication and exchange that contributed to the ancient Silk Road.






原文:Qi Xijia

文案:lanlan

图:上海博物馆、网络


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