首页> 娱乐> 昨天!其实是个挺重要的日子,可知道的人似乎不多啊……

昨天!其实是个挺重要的日子,可知道的人似乎不多啊……

2017-10-09 16:02     娱乐     来自:环球时报(英文版)-MySH

昨天,10.8,是国庆长假的最后一天,是鹿晗关晓彤公布恋情、把微博都弄瘫痪的日子……


不过,在中国传统文化里,昨天还有着特殊的含义……


昨天是二十四节气中的“寒露”



《月令七十二候集解》有曰:九月节,露气寒冷,將凝结也。





二十四节气是中国特有的表示季节变迁的二十四个特定节令,古人用来指导农事活动。直到现在,很多地方的农民还会依靠它来判断耕种和收获的时间。


作为中国传统历法的一部分,二十四节气体现了古代中国人对于天文和自然的探索。而随着科技的发展,人们对于二十四节气这种历法的依赖慢慢减少,对于它的理解也越来越有限。


去年,二十四节气被列入联合国教科文组织人类非物质文化遗产。之后,为了更好地保护及传承这项遗产,中国民俗学会在北京成立了“中国二十四节气研究中心”。





最近,研究中心的副主任、上海大学教授黄景春最近就给Global Times科普了一些关于二十四节气的小知识……



The 24 Solar Terms



The world has seen great technological advancement in just the past few decades. The 24 solar terms, a thousand-year-old calendar system used by Chinese farmers to plant and harvest crops, seems to be losing its attractiveness among younger generations who now rely heavily on electronic devices.



Phenophases, philosophies and phenomena



Each solar term on the almanac-like calendar has a specific name representing a feature of that specific period. For example, Grain in Beard usually comes on June 5, 6 or 7, when farmers are busy with harvest or planting new seeds. The End of Heat on August 22, 23 or 24 tells people that the hottest weather of the year has passed. 


(二十四节气里的)每一个节气都代表着某个特定时间段的特征。比如,谷雨会在每年的6月5、6或者7号到来,意味着农民要开始收割、播种,而每年8月22、23或者24号的处暑一过,就意味着炎热的天气终于过去了。


One day, perhaps people will only remember that, when the Winter Solstice (one of the 24 solar terms) arrives on December 21, 22 or 23 every year, we need to eat dumplings to protect our ears from being stung with cold - a traditional tale that prevails in North China.


The preserving and passing of the 24 solar terms of China has become a serious issue among traditionalists in the digital era, but good news arrived last November when China's 24 solar terms were finally listed as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).


Soon afterward, the China Folklore Society constructed a studying center of China's 24 solar terms in Beijing, aiming to explore folklore resources behind the terms in different areas while protecting and passing down the heritage for future generations.



Interview with Huang Jingchun



Huang Jingchun, deputy director of the new studying center and a professor specializing folklore and ancient Chinese literature at Shanghai University, recently sat down with the Global Times to share his knowledge and ideas about the protection of the 24 solar terms in China.


GT: Ancient Chinese people used both the lunar calendar and solar calendar. What are their respective functions?


GT:古人使用阴阳合历,阴历和阳历分别发挥什么样的功能?


Huang: The Chinese traditional calendar is actually called the "lunisolar" calendar by scholars. To make it distinct from the Gregorian calendar created by the Westerners, Chinese people used to name it in different ways, such as Chinese calendar (pronounced as zhongli in Putonghua), ancient calendar (jiuli) and lunar calendar (yinli). However, a lunar calendar, indicating only the moon phases, is actually incorrect, as the Chinese traditional calendar combines both lunar calendar and solar calendar.


黄:学者们一般将中国的传统历法称为阴阳历。为了与西历(格里高利历)做出区分,民间给传统历法冠以不同的称呼,比如:中历、旧历、阴历。事实上,“阴历”这种称呼是不正确的。阴历仅仅指代月相,而中国的传统历法同时包含阴历(太阴历)和阳历(太阳历)。





Solar calendars decide the first day of a new year, months and festivals according to the movement of the sun on the ecliptic. Lunar calendars set months and dates based on the position of the moon on its revolution around Earth. To make the lunar months of lunisolar calendars align with the solar year, Chinese add an intercalated month every three years.


太阳历以太阳在黄道上的运行情况为依据设置元旦、月份和节日,不考虑月相。而阴历以月亮绕地球运行的情况为依据而设置月份和日序,主要考虑月相。为了保持传统历法的阴历和阳历大体相符,每三年设置一个闰月。


We call the Chinese traditional calendar "lunisolar" mainly because it is imbedded with the 24 solar terms, which are defined according to the position of the sun. The 24 solar terms actually reflects the position of Earth revolving around the sun. Every 15-degree movement makes one term and 360 degrees make 24 terms, which means a solar year. 


我们之所以说中国传统历法是“阴阳历”主要是因为其中嵌入了二十四节气。二十四节气是按照太阳在黄道上的运行情况而设定的,本质上反映的是地球绕太阳运动的轨道位置。每运行15°一个节气,二十四个节气360°,构成一个回归年(太阳年)。


As Earth revolves around the sun in an ellipse, it rotates faster on its axis when it comes closer to the sun and slower when it goes farther. Therefore, it takes Earth 15 days, sometimes 14 or 16 days, to finish one term. The terms can reflect the climate changes of different seasons correctly. Therefore, it is a solar calendar.


由于地球轨道是椭圆形,距离太阳越近地球公转越快,距离太阳越远地球公转越慢,于是走完15°(即一个节气)有时需要15天,有时是14或16天。节气体现的是地球在绕日轨道上的固定位置,能准确反映季节的气候变化,因而是纯阳历。





GT: The 24 solar terms were established before the Qin Dynasty (221BC-206BC). Has it ever gone through any evolution in the past thousand years?


Huang: The 24 solar terms have undergone some changes. In the Xiaozheng Chinese Calendar, one of China's oldest scientific documents completed during the Spring and Autumn Period (770BC-476BC), there were some descriptions on phenological phenomena and farm works which were used to guide agricultural activities and identical to the ideas to the 24 solar terms.


In the later stages of the Warring States (475BC-221BC), the Lü's Annals, Twelve Periods, a series documents telling phenological changes and Taoism philosophies, included eight solar terms among which the Beginning of Spring (February 3, 4 or 5), the Beginning of Summer (May 5, 6 or 7), the Beginning of Autumn (August 7, 8 or 9), the Beginning of Winter (November 7 or 8) mark the starting of four seasons, while the Spring Equinox (March 20, 21 or 22), the Summer Solstice (June 21 or 22), the Autumnal Equinox (September 22, 23 or 24) and the Winter Solstice stay in the middle of the four seasons.


At the beginning of Western Han Dynasty (206BC-AD25), the Huainanzi, a philosophical work of the Eclectics of ancient China, made a detailed description of the 24 solar terms. Later on, Emperor Wu (156BC-87BC) of the Han Dynasty integrated the terms into the solar calendar, from when the terms became an indispensable part of Chinese calendars.


GT: Some people argue that the terms are no longer accurate due to climate changes. What do you think?


GT:由于气候变化,有些人觉得二十四节气已经不准确了,您怎样看待这个问题?


Huang: The 24 solar terms are still important, as they reflect the changes of seasons and the phenophases and are used to guide agricultural production. As they were concluded in the mid and lower reaches of the Yellow River, it is suitable for that area. 


黄:二十四节气反映季节、物候等方面的变化,用以指导农事活动,至今仍有重要作用。由于它是在黄河中下游地区总结出来的,在这一地区最为适用。


Farmers in different geographical latitudes consult the terms based on specific local conditions. This can be explained by some farming proverbs. For instance, farmers in Central China's Henan Province say that the Autumnal Equinox (September 22, 23 or 24) is the best time to sow wheat, those in Central China's Hubei Province believe that Cold Dew (October 8 or 9) is the best choice, but people in East China's Zhejiang Province prefer the Frost's Descent (October 23 or 24).


农民在利用二十四节气时,是紧密结合本地实际情况的。这在农谚上也有反映,如河南的种麦农谚:“白露早,寒露迟,秋分种麦正当时。”湖北则是:“秋分早,霜降迟,寒露种麦正当时。”浙江变成了:“寒露早,立冬迟,霜降种麦正当时。”


Climate change is not so serious yet to affect actual seasons. China is a vast territory. The terms might be poorly applicable in Northeast China and South China including South China's Guangdong Province and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, but it won't affect the division of the four seasons by the four beginnings, two equinoxes and two solstices. Currently, they can still direct agricultural production in the areas of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers.


当今气候变化并没有达到足以改变季节的程度。中国幅员辽阔,二十四节气对于气候的描述(特别是冷暖和降水的节气)在岭南的两广、东北地区的适用性较差,但这并不影响“四立”“两分”“两至”对季节的划分。今天,二十四节气在我国黄河、长江流域仍能够很好地指导农业生产。


GT: Most modern people's understanding of the terms is quite limited. How can we protect the terms, as they are now listed as an intangible cultural heritage of China?


GT:现在,人们对于节气的变化以及真正的含义了解还很有限,二十四节气申遗成功后,我们该如何去保护这项非物质文化遗产?


Huang: It is true that some people understand the terms in a superficial way and even regard them as an outdated or superstitious calendar. We should self-question the superstitious beliefs people have endowed to the terms, such as taboos on particular days. However, the most important thing is that we need to understand it in an accurate and correct way and keep in mind that it is a solar calendar in essence.


黄:是的,很多人对二十四节气的了解还都比较表象,甚至不少人把它理解成陈旧、过时、迷信的历法系统。二十四节气确实曾被赋予了某些观念和信仰,被附会了某些“宜”“忌”的说法,这些固然是要检讨的。但更重要的是,要准确理解它,认识它的“阳历”本质。


The Gregorian calendar is only a solar calendar, which only considers the position of the sun. The calendar of Islam is a lunar calendar which includes 12 lunar months but does not consider the tropical year. The Chinese traditional calendar integrating both the tropical year and 12 lunar months bears the exploration spirit and wisdom of ancient Chinese.


西历(格里高利历)是纯阳历,只考虑太阳位置不考虑月相变化;伊斯兰历(希吉来历)是纯阴历,十二个朔望月为一年,不考虑回归年(即:太阳年),而中国的传统历法则把回归年和十二个朔望月完美融合在一起,其中包含着中国古代人民的探索精神和伟大智慧。


GT: As urbanization progresses along with technological advancement, what kind of meaning do the terms have?


Huang: The terms have been closely combined with the living rhythm, lifestyle and especially traditional festivals of Chinese people. It also absorbed some contents of history, religions and folklore. These cultural features are still playing an energetic role in our society despite increasing urbanization.


For example, people are now emphasizing more on health, which requires us to understand the knowledge of the terms. It is not only a cultural heritage of China, but also a precious heritage to all the human beings.


GT: How will your center spread and promote the terms in the future?


Huang: In fact, there has been a fever to protect the terms after they were listed as a UNESCO intangible cultural heritage. The establishment of the center is a practical step that the China Folklore Society took to bring together folklorists, historians and experts studying cultural relics and calendars to protect and promote the terms.


Some organizations have been set up to protect some or all of the terms. Creations themed with the terms are so active that thousands of paintings, especially peasant paintings, have been made.


The center will get more involved in the protection activities held in different places and organize studying workshops to delve into the cultural essence. Forums co-organized by the academic field and local governments such as the one held by Nanjing Agricultural University and Gaochun county of East China's Jiangsu Province on September 23 are also an important way by which the scholars could do research on the basis of local agricultural production and history.





原文/翻译:Chen Shasha

图:CFP、网络


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